Buah Merah and Papuan People
by Mathelda Kurniaty Roreng, S.TP, M.Si
and Toshiaki Nishigaki, Ph.D
Health Benefits of Buah Merah Oil
Health benefits of provitamin A carotenoids are also well summarized by the Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University in USA (12) .
It is well-known that high doses of beta-carotene (considered as synthetic substance, 20~30 mg/day) supplementation to smokers and/or workers with a history of occupational asbestos exposure increased the risk of lung cancers.
In contrast, there are many reports that dietary intake of beta-cryptoxanthin was inversely associated with significant reductions in risk of lung cancer in cohort clinical studies.
Experimental animal studies demonstrated that beta-cryptoxanthin had ant-cancer effects in the large intestines and lungs, and prevented osteoporosis and improved diabetes mellitus (16~19).
With regards to Buah Merah oil, there are various empirical reports of improvement for stamina, hypertension, gout, allergy, eczema, cancers, hepatitis, AIDS/HIVs, hair-growth, constipation, lower body temperature and so on, but the effects of Buah Merah oil have not been completely established (5, 6, 13, 20~22).
In Japan, it has been reported that Buah Merah oil inhibited proliferation of cancer cells such as S-180, Lewis lung cancer, human non-small lung cancer A549 and human gastric cancer K-MK-6 cell lines in mice (23, 24). When Buah Merah oil was given to SHR-SP rats, it increased in longevity of SHR-SP rats by 20 % (25).
In vitro studies using melanoma cell B16 line revealed that Buah Merah oil was not cyto-toxic until the concentrations of 400 μg/mL and suppressed melanogenesis and tyrosinase activity in a dose-dependent manner (26).
It is suggested from an additional study that suppression of melanogenesis is probably associated with stimulated degradation of tyrosinase through ubiquitin-proteasome system (27).
Beta-cryptoxanthin suppresses the growth of human non-small-cell lung cancer cells, A549 cells in vitro by approximate 50% at concentration of 20 μmol/L (28).
In contrast, 500 μg/mL (equivalent to 0.05 μmol/L of beta-cryptoxanthin) of Buah Merah oil suppresses the growth of A549 cancer cells by 97.5% (23).
These findings indicate that Buah Merah oil has more than 400-fold stronger action in suppression of A4549 cell growth as long as beta-cryptoxanthin levels are concerned.
Macroscopic picture of squamous cell carcinoma, and
microscopic pictures of four types of lung cancers
We speculate that Buah Merah oil may exert suppression of cancer cell growth not only by beta-cryptoxanthin’s action but also by synergistic effects with unknown ingredients, probably other carotenoids.
Recently, it was found from preliminary clinical studies that ingestion of Buah Merah capsules revealed growth of hairs, improved acne and prohibited hair loss.
Thus, Buah Merah capsule products are expected as novel nutra-cosmetic agent by taking them orallly.
Buah Merah products are categorized as traditional herbal medicine in Indonesia.
Indonesian Buah Merah products claim the benefits or efficacy for cancers, stroke and hypertension, gout, diabetes mellitus, oesteoporosis, eye disorders, improvement of intelligence and infertile.
On the other hand, Buah Merah products are classified as dietary food in Japan and Korea, therefore they are claimed for use of dietary food to intake natural micronutrients and fruit oil.
Buah Merah is Papua-originated rare and unique plant and fruit that has been providing functional and essential micronutorients such as provitamin A carotenoids and vitamin E as well as fruit flesh oil to Papuan native folks living at highland areas under poor environments for more than 30,000 years.
Buah Merah is likely to provide various actions for human health in related to rich contents of provitamin A carotenoids, especially beta-cryptoxanthin. Beta-cryptoxanthin may exert synergic actions with other carotenoids or unknown ingredients.
The long history and experiences of use of Buah Merah by Papuan people proves the strong evidence of safety.
There are no adverse events reported in Indonesia, Japan and the other countries in human use. In addition, the toxicity studies of Buah Merah oil do not reveal any toxic findings caused by Buah Merah oil.
There is no reason to limit consumption of Buah Merah oil because Buah Merah oil is pure dietary food derived from Buah Merah fruit. However, daily acceptable highest dose of Buah Merah oil may be 10 g/day from dietary custom of native Papuan people.
We are welcome any body if you have questions to this article.
Please contact to T. Nishigakii, Ph.D., email@example.com
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2 N Fukui et al. What is Human History vol. 20 (in Japanese), Kodansha, Japan, 2009
3 K Muller. Introducing Papua. Daisy World Books, Indonesia, 2008
4 J Pasveer. Prehistric Human Presence in Papua and Adjacent Areas, The Ecology of Indonesia Series vol. VI : The Ecology of Papua Part One, by AJ Marshall and B M Beehler. Periplus Editions (HK), edited. Singapore, 2007
5 T Nishigaki and K Nakashima. Buah Merah (in Japanese), Ikuhosha, Japan, 2007
6 T M Nishigaki and I S Waspodo. Buah Merah (in Indonesian), Yayasan Pengusaha Makanan dan Minuman Seluruh Indonesia, Indonesia, 2007
7 The Division of Balance Sheet of Regional and Cross-Sector Anakysis. Papua in Figure 2011, BPS-Statistics of Papua Province
8 RJ Johns, GA Shea, W Vink and O Puradyatmika. Montane Vegetation of Papua, The Ecology of Indonesia Series vol. VI : The Ecology of Papua Part Two, edited by AJ Marshall and B M Beehler. Periplus Editions (HK),. Singapore, 2007
9 Internal Archives of M&K Laboratories Inc. Japan
10 T Nishigaki, F N A Dewi, H Wijaya and H Shigematsu. Acute and Subacute Toxicity Studies of Pandanus conoideus (Buah Merah) Extract Oil in Sprague Dawley Rats. Internal Archives of M&K Laboratories Inc. Japan
11 T Maeda, H Miyakita, M Goto and A Ito. Mutagenicity Study (of Buah Merah Oil Made by PT Papua Herbal Sejahtera, Indonesia), Internal Archives of M&K Laboratories Inc. Japan
12 Micronutrient Information Center, Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University. http://lpi.oregonstate.edu/infocenter/phytochemicals/carotenoids/index.html#biological_activity
13 Redaksi trubus. Panduan Praktis BUAH MERAH (in Indonesian), 2005, Penebar Swadaya, Indonesia.
14 H Wijaya and T Nishigaki. Preliminary Pharmacokinetic Study of Buah Merah oil in healthy humans. Internal Archives of Center for Agro-Based Industry, Ministry of Industry, Indonesia
15 Institute of Medicine. Dietary reference intakes for vitamin A, vitamin K, arsenic, boron, chromium, copper, iodine, iron, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, sikicon, vanadium and zinc. 2001, National Academy Press, USA
16 T Tanaka et al. Suppression of Azoxymethane0induced colon carcinogenesis on male F344 rats by Mandarin juice rich in b-Cryptoxanthin and Hesperidin. Int. J. Cancer: 88, 146–150 (2000)
17 C Liu, RT Bronson, RM Russel and XD Wang. β-Ctryptoxanthin supplementation prevents cigarette smoke-induced lung inflammation, oxidative damage and squamous metaplasia in ferrets. Cancer Prev Res, Published online March 18, 2011
18 S Uchiyama, T Sumida and M Yamaguchi. Oral Administration of β -Cryptoxanthin Induces Anabolic Effects on Bone Components in the Femoral Tissues of Rats in Vivo. Biol. Pharm. Bull. : 27(2) 232—235 (2004)
19 Winarto, M Madiyan and N Anisah. The effect of Pandanus conoideus Lam. Oil on pancreatic β-cells and glibenclamide hupoglycemic effect of diabetic Wistar rats. Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran: 41 (1) 11-19, 2009
20 IM Budi and F Paimin, Buah Merah (in Indonesian), Penebar Swadaya, Indonesia, 2004
21 M Yahya and BTW Wiryanta. Khasiat & Manfaat Buah Merah (in Indonesia). AgroMedia Pustaka, Indonesia, 2005
22 Redaksi AgroMedia. Pro & Kontra Buah Merah. AgroMedia Pustaka, 2005
23 T Nishigaki, K Hirose, IS. Surono and H Shigematsu. Antitumor Effects of Pandanus conoideus in in vitro and in vivo Studies. Internal Archives of M&K Laboratories Inc. Japan
24 T Nishigaki and K Hirose. In vivo-growth inhibition of human gastric cancer K-MK-6
by Buah Merah. Internal Archives of M&K Laboratories Inc. Japan
25 H Yoshitomi, T Nishigaki, I Surono and M Gao. Longevity of Spontaneous Hypertensive Rat-Stroke Prone Rats (SHR-SP) by Morinda citrifolia (Noni) fruit juice, Cocos nucifera (Extra Virgin Coconut Oil ) and Pandanus conoideus (Buah Merah) oil. International Conference, Exhibition and Short Course on Nutraceuticals and Functional Foods in Indonesia, October 11-15, 2010
26 M Hatai, H Yoshitomi, T Nishigakiand M Gao. Inhibitory Effects and Mechanism of Buah Merah (Pandanus conoideus) Oil on Melanogenesis. Japan Pharmacy Conference, supposedly held in Shizuoka in April, 2011. Buah Merah Meeting in Tokyo, May 15, 2011
27 M Hatai, H Yoshitomi, T Nishigakiand M Gao. Stimulatory Action of Tyrosinase Degradation by Buah Merah Oil. Japan Pharmacy conference, March, 2012
28 F Lian, KQ Hu, RM Russel, XD Wang. 2006. beta-Cryptoxanthin suppresses the growth of immortalized human bronchial epithelial cells and non-small lung cancer cells and up-regulates retinoic acid receptor beta expression. 2006, Int. J. Cancer. 119:2084-2089.
As of now, Buah Merah 500 /500VE capsule products have not been available
in any other country except Japan.
We are willing to send Buah Merah 500VE on request of readers from any country.
It is said that you can purchase food supplements for your self consumption without permission of authority.
Three (3) bottles of Buah Merah 500VE are ready to send you by EMS.
The price including EMS charge is USD 180.
Remittance cost is considered to be minimal.
Buah Merah 500VE is good for
fanatic smokers, patients with cancers, DM, post-menopausal oesteoporosis,
acne, boldness, malnutrition and other serious diseases,
and for enhance of your health, longevity.
Please contact, Dr. M. Nishigaki, firstname.lastname@example.org