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Category: beta-Cryptoxanthin >Buah Merah >Buah Merah 500 >BUah Merah 500VE >English >Indonesia >lung cancer >M&Kぶろぐ >Papua

Buah Merah and Papuan People (3): Distribution of Buah Merah

05/23/2013 13:20

Buah Merah and Papuan People

by Mathelda Kurniaty Roreng, S.TP, M.Si
and Toshiaki Nishigaki, Ph.D

Distribution of Buah Merah in Papua

From our investigations, Buah Merah is relatively widely planted in entire Papua from the highlands and lowlands.
But the highest density is seen at the highland areas including areas of Baliem valley, Maoke mountains and Arfak mountains where the plants are naturally grown or cultivated.
Among these montaいne areas, Buah Merah trees are tended in Nothofagus forest over the range of 1500~2800 m above sea level (8).

P1050395

Buah Merah Tress. Three fruits are seen.

DSC01883

Nothofagus tree in Bliem basin

However, Buah Merah is traditionally taken as daily foods in Baliem valley and its vicinity areas and Maoke mountains areas only. 
In these areas, local government and Christian association recommend the native folks to plant Buah Merah trees for their health and sales.
People living in the lowlands have no custom to receive it, and Buah Merah fruit is not easily accessible and available for the lowlanders.

BM distribution in Papua

 Within Papua in Indonesian territory, there are three main areas encircled for Buah Merah

Buah Merah trees are naturally grown and specifically cultivated in the highland areas of Papua as described above.
They seem likely to be originated in Papua and to be rare and unique plant species.
Therefore, Buah Merah is forbidden to bring it out of Indonesia and to get any patent without permission of Indonesia Government.

In 2007, Center for Agro-Based Industry, Ministry of Industry, Indonesian Government and M&K Laboratories Inc. , Japan entered into Material Transfer Agreement (MTA) based on biodiversity treaty of the United Nations, 2003.
In addition, Buah Merah is subject to collaborate in research and development following Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) with both parties.

MTA署名

Material Transfer Agreement (MTA) and MOU were made
between Indonesian Government and M&K Laboratories Inc.
in 2007

References

1 R Otsuka. Earth of Mongoloids (2) Encounter to South Pacific Ocean (in Japanese),  Tokyo University Publication, Japan, 1997

2 N Fukui et al. What is Human History vol. 20 (in Japanese), Kodansha, Japan, 2009

3 K Muller. Introducing Papua. Daisy World Books, Indonesia, 2008

4 J Pasveer. Prehistric Human Presence in Papua and Adjacent Areas, The Ecology of Indonesia Series vol. VI : The Ecology of Papua Part One, by AJ Marshall and B M Beehler. Periplus Editions (HK), edited. Singapore, 2007

5 T Nishigaki and K Nakashima. Buah Merah (in Japanese), Ikuhosha, Japan, 2007

6 T M Nishigaki and I S Waspodo. Buah Merah (in Indonesian), Yayasan Pengusaha Makanan dan Minuman Seluruh Indonesia, Indonesia, 2007

7 The Division of Balance Sheet of Regional and Cross-Sector Anakysis. Papua in Figure 2011, BPS-Statistics of Papua Province

8 RJ Johns, GA Shea, W Vink and O Puradyatmika. Montane Vegetation of Papua,  The Ecology of Indonesia Series vol. VI : The Ecology of Papua Part Two, edited by AJ Marshall and B M Beehler. Periplus Editions (HK),. Singapore, 2007

9 Internal Archives of M&K Laboratories Inc. Japan

10 T Nishigaki, F N A Dewi, H Wijaya and H Shigematsu.  Acute and Subacute Toxicity Studies of Pandanus conoideus (Buah Merah) Extract Oil in Sprague Dawley Rats. Internal Archives of M&K Laboratories Inc. Japan

11 T Maeda, H Miyakita, M Goto and A Ito. Mutagenicity Study (of Buah Merah Oil Made by PT Papua Herbal Sejahtera, Indonesia), Internal Archives of M&K Laboratories Inc. Japan

12 Micronutrient Information Center, Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University. http://lpi.oregonstate.edu/infocenter/phytochemicals/carotenoids/index.html#biological_activity

13 Redaksi trubus. Panduan Praktis BUAH MERAH (in Indonesian), 2005, Penebar Swadaya, Indonesia.

14 H Wijaya and T Nishigaki. Preliminary Pharmacokinetic Study of Buah Merah oil in healthy humans. Internal Archives of Center for Agro-Based Industry, Ministry of Industry, Indonesia

15 Institute of Medicine. Dietary reference intakes for vitamin A, vitamin K, arsenic, boron, chromium, copper, iodine, iron, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, sikicon, vanadium and zinc. 2001, National Academy Press, USA

16 T Tanaka et al. Suppression of Azoxymethane0induced colon carcinogenesis on male F344 rats by Mandarin juice rich in b-Cryptoxanthin and Hesperidin. Int. J. Cancer: 88, 146–150 (2000)

17 C Liu, RT Bronson, RM Russel and XD Wang. β-Ctryptoxanthin supplementation prevents cigarette smoke-induced lung inflammation, oxidative damage and squamous metaplasia in ferrets. Cancer Prev Res, Published online March 18, 2011

18 S Uchiyama, T Sumida and M Yamaguchi. Oral Administration of  β -Cryptoxanthin Induces Anabolic Effects on Bone Components in the Femoral Tissues of Rats in Vivo. Biol. Pharm. Bull. : 27(2) 232—235 (2004)

19 Winarto, M Madiyan and N Anisah. The effect of Pandanus conoideus Lam. Oil on pancreatic β-cells and glibenclamide hupoglycemic effect of diabetic Wistar rats. Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran: 41 (1) 11-19, 2009

20 IM Budi and F Paimin, Buah Merah (in Indonesian), Penebar Swadaya, Indonesia, 2004

21 M Yahya and BTW Wiryanta. Khasiat & Manfaat Buah Merah (in Indonesia). AgroMedia Pustaka, Indonesia, 2005

22 Redaksi AgroMedia. Pro & Kontra Buah Merah. AgroMedia Pustaka, 2005

23 T Nishigaki, K Hirose, IS. Surono and H Shigematsu.  Antitumor Effects of Pandanus conoideus in in vitro and in vivo Studies. Internal Archives of M&K Laboratories Inc. Japan

24 T Nishigaki and K Hirose. In vivo-growth inhibition of human gastric cancer K-MK-6

by Buah Merah. Internal Archives of M&K Laboratories Inc. Japan

25 H Yoshitomi, T Nishigaki, I Surono and M Gao. Longevity of Spontaneous Hypertensive Rat-Stroke Prone Rats (SHR-SP) by Morinda citrifolia (Noni) fruit juice, Cocos nucifera (Extra Virgin Coconut Oil ) and Pandanus conoideus (Buah Merah) oil. International Conference, Exhibition and Short Course on Nutraceuticals and Functional Foods in Indonesia, October 11-15, 2010

26 M Hatai, H Yoshitomi, T Nishigakiand M Gao. Inhibitory Effects and Mechanism of Buah Merah (Pandanus conoideus) Oil on Melanogenesis. Japan Pharmacy Conference, supposedly held in Shizuoka in April, 2011. Buah Merah Meeting in Tokyo, May 15, 2011

27 M Hatai, H Yoshitomi, T Nishigakiand M Gao. Stimulatory Action of Tyrosinase Degradation by Buah Merah Oil. Japan Pharmacy conference, March, 2012

28 F Lian, KQ Hu, RM Russel, XD Wang. 2006. beta-Cryptoxanthin suppresses the growth of immortalized human bronchial epithelial cells and non-small lung cancer cells and up-regulates retinoic acid receptor beta expression. 2006, Int. J. Cancer. 119:2084-2089.

Buah Merah 500VE is typical Buah Merah oil capsule product launched in Japan.

BuahMerah500web

As of now, Buah Merah 500 /500VE capsule products have not been available 
in any other country except Japan.
We are willing to send Buah Merah 500VE on request of readers from any country.
It is said that you can purchase food supplements for your self consumption without permission of authority.

Three (3) bottles of Buah Merah 500VE are ready to send you by EMS.
The price including EMS charge is USD 180. 
Remittance cost is considered to be minimal.

Buah Merah 500VE is good for 
fanatic smokers, patients with cancers, DM, post-menopausal oesteoporosis, 
acne, boldness, malnutrition and other serious diseases, 
and for enhance of your health, longevity.

Please contact, Dr. M. Nishigaki, 
buahmerah@po.mcci.or.jp

 

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